PA bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your big toe. It occurs when some of the bones in the front part of your foot move out of place. This causes the tip of your big toe to get pulled toward the smaller toes and forces the joint at the base of your big toe to stick out. The skin over the bunion might be red and sore.

Causes

There are many theories about how bunions develop, but the exact cause is unknown. Factors likely include:

  • Inherited foot type
  • Foot stress or injuries
  • Deformities present at birth

Experts disagree on whether tight, high-heeled or too-narrow shoes cause bunions or whether footwear simply contributes to the development of bunions.

Bunions might be associated with certain types of arthritis, particularly inflammatory types, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Risk factors

These factors might increase your risk of bunions:

  • High heels. Wearing high heels forces your toes into the front of your shoes, often crowding your toes.
  • Ill-fitting shoes. People who wear shoes that are too tight, too narrow or too pointed are more likely to develop bunions.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Having this inflammatory condition can make you more likely to develop bunions.
  • Heredity. The tendency to develop bunions might be the result of an inherited problem with the structure or anatomy of your foot.